• Muhammad Fayyaz
  • Masroor Elahi Babar
  • Khawar Ali
  • Anam Shahzadi
  • Ali Raza
  • Muhammad Masood Ahmed
  • Mehreen Arshad
  • Dr Jawwad azeem khan



GRM6, PCR, CSNB, DNA, Exon 4, DNA Sequencing, NCBI, Visual Acuity


Night blindness is characterized by poor vision in low light and is frequently related to retinal rod cell degeneration.
While it can be congenital and classified as an Autosomal recessive ambiguity, it is regarded as rare around the world
and is usually distincted from X chromosome. The study focused on families that had the history of night blindness, and
entire blood samples were taken for DNA extraction. Exon 4 of the GRM6 gene was targeted using specific primers to
amplify the targeted DNA fragments. Gel electrophoresis and sequencing techniques were used to examine the
amplified fragments. However, there were no significant alterations in the GRM6 Exon 4 area in our findings,
indicating that this specific gene may have no role in night blindness in the examined families. The work emphasizes the
significance of comprehending the numerous genetic mechanisms that contribute to congenital fixed night blindness, as
well as the involvement of the GRM6 gene in retinal function. The study focused at the GRM6 gene in connection to
congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB). The GRM6 gene was premeditated in seven families having night
blindness symptoms. Blood samples were taken, DNA was extracted by organic method and specific primers for Exon 4
of the GRM6 gene were designed. Gel electrophoresis was performed that indicated the successful PCR amplification
and subse

Author Biographies

Muhammad Fayyaz

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology University of Gujrat Pakistan.

Masroor Elahi Babar

Department of Molecular Biology Virtual University of Pakistan

Khawar Ali

Department of Molecular Biology Virtual University of Pakistan.

Anam Shahzadi

 Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology University of Gujrat Pakistan.

Ali Raza

Department of Management Sciences University of Engineering & Technology Lahore

Muhammad Masood Ahmed

College of Pharmacy, Nishtar Medical University, Multan.

Mehreen Arshad

Ziauddin University Karachi, Pakistan.

Dr Jawwad azeem khan

Ziauddin University Karachi, Pakistan.


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